What is a seamless clinical trial?

Timescales for the process of drug development can be significantly reduced using seamless adaptive clinical trials. However, many opportunities are still being missed, due to the confusing nature of these types of programmes. Sponsors remain unsure as to the operational and financial costs and benefits of such a scheme, despite there being plenty of information available about them.

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Also known as a combined phase trial, seamless trials typically save time by using just one adaptive trial with interim looks, as opposed to several phases. For example, a study which might usually require an approach using 4 Phase 2 and 1 big Phase 3 could instead be combined to create a 4 arm trial. After the first interim look, one or two of the successful arms may be dropped. The dual role to confirm safety and efficacy may be achieved using the data collected from the successful arm, prior to the less successful arms being dropped from the study. Sample size can also be reduced.

It has become more popular in recent years to use seamless trials for dose finding and proof of concept programmes. Combining multiple trials into one larger one can save time and will usually reduce the numbers of participants required. There are two different types of seamless trials that can be used.

Inferentially seamless trials

This is where data from before the first interim look is used inferentially, alongside that collected after the interim look to establish safety and establish efficacy.

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Operationally seamless trials

In contrast to the inferentially seamless trial, in an operationally seamless trial, the two sets of data evaluated – pre and post interim look – are kept separate and distinct from each other. Both have a purpose which is distinctive in itself.

Inflexibility of seamless trials?

Far from being inflexible, adaptive phase 1 clinical studies, such as those carried out here, http://www.richmondpharmacology.com/adaptive-phase-i-studies.php, provide the means to change the approach being used at each interim look.

Seamless adaptive designs, and in particular, inferentially seamless trials, can prove slightly less flexible as there is less room to make changes at the interim looks. These limitations can be overcome however, and there are a number of benefits to using a seamless design, including increasing the speed at which the trial can be completed and reducing the number of participants required.

How can you cut condensation in your garage?

By their very nature, garages tend to be cold and damp. This can lead to ongoing issues with condensation; over time, this can create a big problem for homeowners as their garage, the belongings inside it and even the rest of the house begin to suffer from the effects. What causes condensation in garages and what can you do to prevent it escalating in your home?

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What causes condensation in a garage?

AXA classes condensation as something that occurs when warm air, or the moisture in warm air, meets a cold surface. When this happens, water droplets form. This tends to be more of an issue in colder temperatures; therefore, you are likely to see more condensation during the winter. If you are using appliances in your garage, the excess heat from these will contribute to condensation; in addition, any leaks or drainage issues will create more moisture.

What are the consequences of condensation in the garage?

Condensation in a garage can lead to excess moisture; over time, this can lead to mildew and damp that can spread to the rest of your home should your garage be attached. This can cause serious structural damage and pose a health risk to the occupants.

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How to reduce condensation in a garage

There are many ways in which you can prevent or reduce the amount of condensation in your garage; for example, you can install some garage shelving from a suppler such as https://www.garage-shelving.co.uk/ to play host to a vapour barrier, which is designed to absorb moisture in the air, or install an electric heater to help regulate the temperature of your garage during colder weather. If the temperature of the garage is not freezing to begin with, the amount of condensation created will be reduced.

Another way to keep moisture levels down is to dry off your vehicle when you have been out in wet or snowy weather. Good ventilation is key to maintaining good air flow and a dehumidifying system can have a similar effect. A good-quality floor coating can also help regulate temperature, lower condensation levels, and prevent general wear in your garage.

None of these systems are particularly difficult or costly to install and may well end up saving you time and the money associated with repairing the effects of mould and mildew.

Things to consider when buying a school canopy

It is important to choose a business that can design a structure fitting your exact specifications and maximise the use of your school grounds.

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Every school space is different, one size is unlikely to fit all, and inflexible designs will not fit.

Safety

Ask your supplier to explain the safety standards that their canopies comply with, and their inbuilt safety features, such as conformity to British snow loading and wind standards, 100% UV ray protection, a freestanding structure and leg pads to protect against injury.

Quality materials are essential. Polycarbonate roofs become dirty, brittle and eventually deteriorate over time. Tensile roofs are becoming increasingly popular, as they are good value, provide shade, are waterproof and are long lasting with limited maintenance. The material is translucent, letting light through but ensuring harmful UV is filtered out.

Canopies can be self-draining with an inbuilt gutter system inside aluminium casing, which is durable, strong and rust proof.

Main use

What is the purpose of the canopy? Talk this over with an experienced provider in school canopies, such as those found at http://signaturestructures.com/school-canopies/. The specialist should listen to all your requirements and advise on design, and location and ensure the outdoor shelter meets your expectations.

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Canopies can be installed alongside school buildings to create free-flow shading from the school room to the outside. They can also be used for covering outdoor dining spaces, school entrances for waiting parents, walkways and play areas.

The government increasingly expects schools to arrange more outside activities and spaces. Adding a canopy can meet these guidelines and utilise unused outdoor areas.

Canopies can be installed with additional walls for added shelter from bad weather and can even effectively extend the classroom.

Planning permission

School canopies may require planning permission, as they are categorised as buildings in planning law. Planning permission applications can take 8 weeks to be approved, and building regulations can delay the process. Your supplier will be able to talk you through this and manage the entire process, if needed.

Other considerations include colour choice and shape. Pick a structure that meets your needs. Whether a tent peak or dome shape, choose a colour that is eye-catching and a shape to suit the school surroundings, that will inspire children.

Why is it dangerous to leave varicose veins untreated?

Varicose veins are surprisingly common, and while they may be unsightly, they often don’t require treatment. However, they can cause symptoms that shouldn’t be overlooked as more serious problems can sometimes develop.

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What are varicose veins?

Varicose veins are enlarged veins that can be dark blue or purple in colour and are visible below the skin. Often found on the legs, they can bulge and be lumpy.

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Various factors can contribute to them, including weight, pregnancy and age. Many individuals do not have a particular causal factor to identify, so the condition is not yet entirely understood.

Causes and symptoms of varicose veins

When vein walls are stretched and weakened, which is irreversible, the valves controlling the flow of blood aren’t able to function adequately, allowing blood to collect in the veins and flood to lower extremities such as the legs.

The swollen or twisted nature of varicose veins can result in aches, puffy ankles and feet, a throbbing sensation, itchy skin, and cramps in leg muscles. Standing and warmer temperatures can exacerbate the symptoms.

The potential dangers

The NHS UK website lists some of complications from untreated varicose veins. It is noted that while most people will not experience related problems, complications can arise years after the varicose veins have developed.

Surface vein bulges can result in more extensive bleeding if the skin is cut. Superficial veins can also develop blood clots, which can progress to veins swelling (thrombophlebitis) and even deep vein thrombosis. At the most extreme, a clot could travel and result in a potentially lethal pulmonary embolism.

Blood can leak from the weakened venous walls into the tissues surrounding them, causing inflammation and visible darkening of the skin (hyperpigmentation).

Inadequate blood flow over a prolonged period will mean your skin may not exchange sufficient nutrients, waste and oxygen with the blood, a condition known as chronic venous insufficiency. Other complications can stem from this, including hardened skin (lipodermatosclerosis), leg ulcers and varicose eczema. These conditions can be painful, sore, unsightly and very uncomfortable.

A vein specialist can offer advice on treatment, such as the varicose vein treatment in Cheshire that can be found at http://www.veinsolutions.co.uk/.

Should any of the above develop, including excessive bleeding or ulcers, immediate medical attention should be sought.

Why choose a flexible screw conveyor?

Flexible screw conveyors transport materials in enclosed tubes much like pneumatic conveyors, and they can often be cost-effective alternatives. The best solution depends on several details.

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Range

The maximum range of a flexible screw is from 50’ to 80’ depending on who you consult. Pneumatic systems can transport material considerably further. Whilst screw conveyors can be fitted in series, junctions are always problem-prone and require extra equipment.

Economics

Over short distances, flexible screws will usually be cheaper both in capital outlay and running costs. Pneumatic conveyors consist essentially of the same equipment regardless of the length of the tubing, which means it is a higher cost per foot over a short distance than a long one. Extra screws on the other hand bear a cost in direct proportion to increasing distance.

Flexibility

The flexibility of a flexible screw is limited. The tubes can curve, but this places strain on the motor. In contrast, pneumatic conveyors are truly flexible and navigate 90-degree bends with ease.

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Adaptability

In some situations, it is desirable to install equipment inside conveying tubes. A common example is the use of magnetic plates to capture metallic contaminants from foodstuffs. These cannot be located inside screws, so they entail additional equipment, raising costs and introducing bottlenecks.

Containment

Screw-fed conduits are not as capable of preventing spillage as a vacuum conveyor.

Homogeneity

Some materials in pneumatic systems generate dust that has to be suppressed, and blended materials are prone to separation. These problems require countermeasures. Screws generally have an advantage in both respects, but they are not foolproof; lighter elements in a slurry can backflow. In fact, they resemble spiral separators.

Responsiveness

A motor-driven auger is more immediately responsive to speed control, which can be useful when used with screeners, grinders, or bag fillers. However, stopping and starting the system is not an ideal way to tackle these operations and there are continuous solutions. Designing how a materials transporting system will dovetail into your other production stages is a job for a conveying specialist such as http://www.aptech.uk.com/pneumatic-conveying/vacuum-conveying/.

Maintenance

Flexible screw conveyors require little routine maintenance. However, compared to multiple stage mechanical alternatives, the same is also true of pneumatic systems.

Durability

Screws are more susceptible to damage from abrasive or corrosive materials. Wear can become a problem with any mechanically moving part eventually.

Introducing the Dual USB Car Charger

Are you someone who likes to carry multiple gadgets with him/her when you travel? Are you frustrated when your gadgets run out of juice when you are travelling? Are you looking for a charger that can be used anywhere with almost any electronic gadget? If the answer to all these questions is yes then you have stumbled upon the right article. In this article we will tell you the perfect solution for all your charging problems.

  • The Solution:

The perfect solution for your charging problems is a Dual USB Car Charger. Such a charger can be easily plugged in to the cigarette lighter of your automobile. You can put it in your car permanently and then charge your devices on the go.

  • Works with most of the devices:

The idea is simple enough. Take the charge from the cigarette lighter and give it to your devices. Most of the devices charge well on a dual USB car charger. Whether you have a Smartphone or a media player, most of the devices that have a USB charging facility can be charged through a dual USB car charger.

  • Charge multiple devices with the same charger:

A dual USB car charger has two USB ports. This means that you can charge up to two devices simultaneously. So now you can charge your mobile phone and your mp3 player at the same time while you are driving.

  • Precautions while buying:

Some smart phones such as I phones and some other high end mobile phones have specific charging needs. You must always buy a certified car charged. It’s good if the charger has been certified by a competent authority like FMI. When you buy a certified charger you make sure that your charger will work in future too when your phone is updated. Another point to note is the volt factor. The original charger that came with your smart phone or mp3 player will have a sticker on it that will detail the voltage requirements of your device’s battery. Make sure that you are buying a charger within the same voltage range as printed on the device’s adapter. Any charger with a higher voltage range can potentially damage your device and it may even violate some terms of warranty. For these reasons it’s in your best interest to spend a few extra seconds and buy the right dual USB car charger.

At Vority, we pride ourselves in making first-rate products. How do we do that? Simple, we keep your needs on top of our list. We also have a team of passionate, creative and driven people to ensure we meet your ever-changing demands. The bottom line is – we make products to keep your life simple.

Like you, our customers, we value top-rated products that give you bang for your buck. So rest assured that we do everything we can to make the best cell phone accessories at competitive prices. In need of some proof of customer satisfaction? Check out our products on Amazon.com. Our customers have consistently provided excellent ratings for Vority cellphones chargers.

Why is recovery important for drug addicts?

Recovery from drug addiction involves certain steps that help an individual to recover from the drug addicted state. The recovery guidelines help the individuals struggling with drug addiction to get the proper and a quick cure from it. Other than that, the individual must also have self control over his or her addiction. Trust and patience is required in the long term recovery from drug addiction. Nowadays there is facility of choosing from the wide range of services provided for the recovery. Starting from the process of evaluation to various residential treatments, one may choose the service according to his or her convenience. The addiction of drugs is dangerous and may result to death of the addicted individuals.  Few people get to understand when they cross the limit of casual drug intakes and become addicted to it. Severe addiction is quite tough to be treated but also not impossible and this is the point when outpatient alcohol rehab should be contacted. If the person gets the proper treatment and under the proper doctor then the whole program of recovery from drug addiction becomes far easier. Continue reading Why is recovery important for drug addicts?

Why is sewing so good for us?

There are so many benefits from sewing that it is difficult to list them all. People enjoy sewing for different reasons, and at different stages in their lives. Making your own clothes and craft items for the home has never been more popular, thanks to the proliferation of websites providing ideas, patterns and instructions for almost anything.

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Make do and mend

Although this phrase was popularised in World War Two, it remains relevant today, when more and more people are feeling challenged by financial issues. If you invest in high quality clothing, you need to be able to keep it in good condition, so knowing the right way to sew on a button, replace a zip or take up a hem is as important today as it ever was. Making alterations to a size or style is also preferable to hitting the shops every couple of weeks.

Making your own clothes

In addition to saving money, making your own clothes is a good way to ensure that you and your family have a unique and up to date wardrobe. It is easy to find beautiful dress fabric online and create something really stunning for a special occasion.

It’s not only people who want to save money who make their own clothes. According to the Belfast Telegraph, the young daughter of Jennifer Lopez is taking after her seamstress great grandmother by sewing, and recently made a unique dress for the superstar.

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If you are considering sewing, why not explore the vast range of fabrics available online, from companies such as http://www.quality-fabrics.co.uk/?

Feeling good

Sewing makes you feel good too! One aspect of this is the satisfaction gained from the achievement of creating something beautiful and unique, whether it is an evening dress or a decorative wall hanging. Having a tangible result to show for your effort is often a reward in itself.

The hand-eye coordination that is needed for sewing helps to keep your brain active and can take your mind off everyday worries. You may prefer to sew alone and have plenty of time to yourself, but many people enjoy the social aspects of joining a sewing circle or quilting group. This can be particularly beneficial for older people who are socially isolated and those living with dementia. Making new friendships can enhance every aspect of their lives.

What professional footballers eat

Skills are improved through training, with players getting better day by day, but to achieve your optimum performance and success on the pitch, you need a diet that will provide you with the nutrition and energy to excel.

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According to Player Scout, the right diet is as important as your training regime. If you fuel your body correctly, you’ll see more gains for the same amount of training, and it will ensure you perform at your best and minimise the risk of injury.

Seven days before the game

Reducing your intake of carbohydrates at the start of the week and then gradually increasing it helps to maximise the levels of stored glycogen available during the match, which serves as a readily available source of energy.

Two to three days before the game

Consuming plenty of soups, especially those containing chilli, ginger, and turmeric, helps thin your blood, which in turns delivers more oxygen to your cells. Increasing oxygenation helps to prevent lactic acid formation which causes muscle fatigue and pain.

The day before the game

The evening meal before a game should contain more carbohydrate than usual, but don’t overload. The ideal balance is grilled chicken and fish with either sweet potato or jacket potato and green vegetables like spinach, which is high in carotenoid antioxidants to enhance visual abilities and sports performance.

Six hours before kick off

On match day, you need to take into account the weather and what clothing would be best, considering the range of strips available to you, such as Adidas football kits from https://www.kitking.co.uk.

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Aim to eat within 30 minutes of getting out of bed and avoid wheat based or high fibre products. An omelette and fruit salad provides the optimum balance of carbohydrate, fat, and protein, and these are easy to digest to avoid bloating.

Four hours before kick off

You want starchy carbohydrates and low fat options at this point, to fuel power. Chicken with quinoa and roasted vegetables or a jacket potato with tuna or salmon are ideal choices.

90 minutes before the match starts

Tropical fruits including banana, papaya, pineapple, and mango are the best final nutritional hit to have before kick off. They contain a modest amount of fibre, which helps prevent the sugar rush associated with other fruits, and this rush is best avoided because it can lead to lethargy.

Great movies for the big screen in your home

Cinematography is a big part of movie making and involves the art of photography. The word comes from the Greek ‘kinema’ which means movement or motion and ‘graphein’ meaning to record. Cinematography is used to refer to the artistic process of making films. We all love a good film and it’s great to watch an epic on our modern day, huge flat screen smart TVs. Especially a film that has been noted for its impressive cinematography. Here we take a look at some of the films that have won Oscars for their exceptional cinematography. You may want to add some of them to your watch list.

Titanic – 1997

This epic tells the tale of the sinking of the Titanic as it happened during the midst of a blossoming love affair. A teenage aristocrat falls in love with a handsome but poor artist and their tale is bound to become one of heartbreak and tragedy. To watch amazing films in your own home cinema, see Home Automation.

Braveheart – 1995

It’s easy to see how this movie had the potential to look incredible on the big screen. Epic battles and action adventure telling the story of Sir William Wallace on his quest for revenge. When his bride is murdered for assaulting an English soldier who tried to rape her, he swears vengeance and begins a revolt against King Edward I of England.

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Schindler’s List – 1993

Cinematic mastery occurred in this harrowing tale of the Holocaust. Directed by Steven Spielberg, Oscar Schindler is a brash businessman who gradually becomes increasingly concerned for the welfare of his Jewish workers under the Nazi regime in occupied Poland.

Dances With Wolves – 1990

An American Indian epic following the life of Lt. John Dunbar as he’s exiled to a remote Civil War outpost. He falls in love with a Native American woman and befriends the tribe, much to the disgust of his military colleagues. The wide, open plains were captured perfectly in the cinematography of this movie.

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Out of Africa – 1985

The scenery was always going to big and epic when setting a movie in Africa. The story tells of a Danish plantation owner who engages in a passionate love affair with a big game hunter in 20th century colonial Kenya.

Gandhi – 1982

Directed by Richard Attenborough and starring the magnificent Ben Kingsley, this movie shows us the life story of the legendary man that was Gandhi. A man of non-violence, through his patience and resolve, he managed to drive the British out of India. Such a big story needed some big screen cinematography.

Apocalypse Now – 1979

Set during the Vietnam War, a Captain is sent on a daring mission to assassinate a renegade colonel in Cambodia. Directed by Francis Ford Coppola and an impressive line-up including Martin Sheen, Marlon Brando and Robert Duvall.

Close Encounters of the Third Kind – 1977

Another epic from Mr Spielberg, this sci-fic classic follows an average working man, who, after an encounter with a UFO, feels a strange draw to a certain area of landscape. When he gets there, amazing things happen.