What is a seamless clinical trial?

Timescales for the process of drug development can be significantly reduced using seamless adaptive clinical trials. However, many opportunities are still being missed, due to the confusing nature of these types of programmes. Sponsors remain unsure as to the operational and financial costs and benefits of such a scheme, despite there being plenty of information available about them.

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Also known as a combined phase trial, seamless trials typically save time by using just one adaptive trial with interim looks, as opposed to several phases. For example, a study which might usually require an approach using 4 Phase 2 and 1 big Phase 3 could instead be combined to create a 4 arm trial. After the first interim look, one or two of the successful arms may be dropped. The dual role to confirm safety and efficacy may be achieved using the data collected from the successful arm, prior to the less successful arms being dropped from the study. Sample size can also be reduced.

It has become more popular in recent years to use seamless trials for dose finding and proof of concept programmes. Combining multiple trials into one larger one can save time and will usually reduce the numbers of participants required. There are two different types of seamless trials that can be used.

Inferentially seamless trials

This is where data from before the first interim look is used inferentially, alongside that collected after the interim look to establish safety and establish efficacy.

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Operationally seamless trials

In contrast to the inferentially seamless trial, in an operationally seamless trial, the two sets of data evaluated – pre and post interim look – are kept separate and distinct from each other. Both have a purpose which is distinctive in itself.

Inflexibility of seamless trials?

Far from being inflexible, adaptive phase 1 clinical studies, such as those carried out here, http://www.richmondpharmacology.com/adaptive-phase-i-studies.php, provide the means to change the approach being used at each interim look.

Seamless adaptive designs, and in particular, inferentially seamless trials, can prove slightly less flexible as there is less room to make changes at the interim looks. These limitations can be overcome however, and there are a number of benefits to using a seamless design, including increasing the speed at which the trial can be completed and reducing the number of participants required.

How can you cut condensation in your garage?

By their very nature, garages tend to be cold and damp. This can lead to ongoing issues with condensation; over time, this can create a big problem for homeowners as their garage, the belongings inside it and even the rest of the house begin to suffer from the effects. What causes condensation in garages and what can you do to prevent it escalating in your home?

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What causes condensation in a garage?

AXA classes condensation as something that occurs when warm air, or the moisture in warm air, meets a cold surface. When this happens, water droplets form. This tends to be more of an issue in colder temperatures; therefore, you are likely to see more condensation during the winter. If you are using appliances in your garage, the excess heat from these will contribute to condensation; in addition, any leaks or drainage issues will create more moisture.

What are the consequences of condensation in the garage?

Condensation in a garage can lead to excess moisture; over time, this can lead to mildew and damp that can spread to the rest of your home should your garage be attached. This can cause serious structural damage and pose a health risk to the occupants.

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How to reduce condensation in a garage

There are many ways in which you can prevent or reduce the amount of condensation in your garage; for example, you can install some garage shelving from a suppler such as https://www.garage-shelving.co.uk/ to play host to a vapour barrier, which is designed to absorb moisture in the air, or install an electric heater to help regulate the temperature of your garage during colder weather. If the temperature of the garage is not freezing to begin with, the amount of condensation created will be reduced.

Another way to keep moisture levels down is to dry off your vehicle when you have been out in wet or snowy weather. Good ventilation is key to maintaining good air flow and a dehumidifying system can have a similar effect. A good-quality floor coating can also help regulate temperature, lower condensation levels, and prevent general wear in your garage.

None of these systems are particularly difficult or costly to install and may well end up saving you time and the money associated with repairing the effects of mould and mildew.

Things to consider when buying a school canopy

It is important to choose a business that can design a structure fitting your exact specifications and maximise the use of your school grounds.

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Every school space is different, one size is unlikely to fit all, and inflexible designs will not fit.


Ask your supplier to explain the safety standards that their canopies comply with, and their inbuilt safety features, such as conformity to British snow loading and wind standards, 100% UV ray protection, a freestanding structure and leg pads to protect against injury.

Quality materials are essential. Polycarbonate roofs become dirty, brittle and eventually deteriorate over time. Tensile roofs are becoming increasingly popular, as they are good value, provide shade, are waterproof and are long lasting with limited maintenance. The material is translucent, letting light through but ensuring harmful UV is filtered out.

Canopies can be self-draining with an inbuilt gutter system inside aluminium casing, which is durable, strong and rust proof.

Main use

What is the purpose of the canopy? Talk this over with an experienced provider in school canopies, such as those found at http://signaturestructures.com/school-canopies/. The specialist should listen to all your requirements and advise on design, and location and ensure the outdoor shelter meets your expectations.

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Canopies can be installed alongside school buildings to create free-flow shading from the school room to the outside. They can also be used for covering outdoor dining spaces, school entrances for waiting parents, walkways and play areas.

The government increasingly expects schools to arrange more outside activities and spaces. Adding a canopy can meet these guidelines and utilise unused outdoor areas.

Canopies can be installed with additional walls for added shelter from bad weather and can even effectively extend the classroom.

Planning permission

School canopies may require planning permission, as they are categorised as buildings in planning law. Planning permission applications can take 8 weeks to be approved, and building regulations can delay the process. Your supplier will be able to talk you through this and manage the entire process, if needed.

Other considerations include colour choice and shape. Pick a structure that meets your needs. Whether a tent peak or dome shape, choose a colour that is eye-catching and a shape to suit the school surroundings, that will inspire children.

Why is it dangerous to leave varicose veins untreated?

Varicose veins are surprisingly common, and while they may be unsightly, they often don’t require treatment. However, they can cause symptoms that shouldn’t be overlooked as more serious problems can sometimes develop.

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What are varicose veins?

Varicose veins are enlarged veins that can be dark blue or purple in colour and are visible below the skin. Often found on the legs, they can bulge and be lumpy.

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Various factors can contribute to them, including weight, pregnancy and age. Many individuals do not have a particular causal factor to identify, so the condition is not yet entirely understood.

Causes and symptoms of varicose veins

When vein walls are stretched and weakened, which is irreversible, the valves controlling the flow of blood aren’t able to function adequately, allowing blood to collect in the veins and flood to lower extremities such as the legs.

The swollen or twisted nature of varicose veins can result in aches, puffy ankles and feet, a throbbing sensation, itchy skin, and cramps in leg muscles. Standing and warmer temperatures can exacerbate the symptoms.

The potential dangers

The NHS UK website lists some of complications from untreated varicose veins. It is noted that while most people will not experience related problems, complications can arise years after the varicose veins have developed.

Surface vein bulges can result in more extensive bleeding if the skin is cut. Superficial veins can also develop blood clots, which can progress to veins swelling (thrombophlebitis) and even deep vein thrombosis. At the most extreme, a clot could travel and result in a potentially lethal pulmonary embolism.

Blood can leak from the weakened venous walls into the tissues surrounding them, causing inflammation and visible darkening of the skin (hyperpigmentation).

Inadequate blood flow over a prolonged period will mean your skin may not exchange sufficient nutrients, waste and oxygen with the blood, a condition known as chronic venous insufficiency. Other complications can stem from this, including hardened skin (lipodermatosclerosis), leg ulcers and varicose eczema. These conditions can be painful, sore, unsightly and very uncomfortable.

A vein specialist can offer advice on treatment, such as the varicose vein treatment in Cheshire that can be found at http://www.veinsolutions.co.uk/.

Should any of the above develop, including excessive bleeding or ulcers, immediate medical attention should be sought.

Five must-know concepts in e-commerce

If you are new to online trading, understanding a few of the common terms used in e-commerce is essential to get you on the road to success. Here are five must-know concepts.

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Responsive design

One of the most important web concepts of current times, responsive design relates to how a website can readjust itself according to the device the user views it on. Responsive design has become a hot topic in e-commerce as more people now use mobile devices for searching online. According to Business2Community more than half of consumer time spent on the internet is now on mobile devices.

Cohort analysis

Understanding your customers and their behaviours can help to shape your website and marketing strategies. Cohort analysis involves studying people according to common characteristics, so you can then identify which customer segments are most profitable to your e-commerce venture.

A/B testing

To improve user experiences, A/B testing, or split testing, is a method that lets you compare two versions of a web page from your e-commerce site. This allows you to identify any weaknesses in your site, and make improvements, such as changing the location or size of offers or sidebars. To ensure effective A/B testing, it’s advisable to seek expert help from web designers in Swansea, such as http://www.accent-adc.co.uk/category/website-design-web-designers-responsive-websites/.

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PCI compliance

Shoppers to your site will want to ensure their financial details are safe when making a purchase, so it’s vital that you’re PCI, or Payment Card Industry, compliant. This covers a set of security standards devised to protect consumers’ financial data before or after a transaction. To ensure compliance, you’ll need secure networks and data storage, robust access control measures and frequent testing and monitoring of your security procedures.

Conversion rate optimisation

This commonly-used concept is essential to the success of any online business, and it relates to analysing information to understand who is buying what on your site. When you understand buyer behaviour, you can better shape your marketing efforts to boost your conversion rates and the overall performance of your site.

It’s important to use reliable sources of information, such as analytics and user feedback, rather than guesswork, to understand how well your site is performing. Making simple changes, such as moving a button, making the call to action more obvious, or focusing on the more successful products, can help optimise your conversion rate.

Why choose a flexible screw conveyor?

Flexible screw conveyors transport materials in enclosed tubes much like pneumatic conveyors, and they can often be cost-effective alternatives. The best solution depends on several details.

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The maximum range of a flexible screw is from 50’ to 80’ depending on who you consult. Pneumatic systems can transport material considerably further. Whilst screw conveyors can be fitted in series, junctions are always problem-prone and require extra equipment.


Over short distances, flexible screws will usually be cheaper both in capital outlay and running costs. Pneumatic conveyors consist essentially of the same equipment regardless of the length of the tubing, which means it is a higher cost per foot over a short distance than a long one. Extra screws on the other hand bear a cost in direct proportion to increasing distance.


The flexibility of a flexible screw is limited. The tubes can curve, but this places strain on the motor. In contrast, pneumatic conveyors are truly flexible and navigate 90-degree bends with ease.

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In some situations, it is desirable to install equipment inside conveying tubes. A common example is the use of magnetic plates to capture metallic contaminants from foodstuffs. These cannot be located inside screws, so they entail additional equipment, raising costs and introducing bottlenecks.


Screw-fed conduits are not as capable of preventing spillage as a vacuum conveyor.


Some materials in pneumatic systems generate dust that has to be suppressed, and blended materials are prone to separation. These problems require countermeasures. Screws generally have an advantage in both respects, but they are not foolproof; lighter elements in a slurry can backflow. In fact, they resemble spiral separators.


A motor-driven auger is more immediately responsive to speed control, which can be useful when used with screeners, grinders, or bag fillers. However, stopping and starting the system is not an ideal way to tackle these operations and there are continuous solutions. Designing how a materials transporting system will dovetail into your other production stages is a job for a conveying specialist such as http://www.aptech.uk.com/pneumatic-conveying/vacuum-conveying/.


Flexible screw conveyors require little routine maintenance. However, compared to multiple stage mechanical alternatives, the same is also true of pneumatic systems.


Screws are more susceptible to damage from abrasive or corrosive materials. Wear can become a problem with any mechanically moving part eventually.

Introducing the Dual USB Car Charger

Are you someone who likes to carry multiple gadgets with him/her when you travel? Are you frustrated when your gadgets run out of juice when you are travelling? Are you looking for a charger that can be used anywhere with almost any electronic gadget? If the answer to all these questions is yes then you have stumbled upon the right article. In this article we will tell you the perfect solution for all your charging problems.

  • The Solution:

The perfect solution for your charging problems is a Dual USB Car Charger. Such a charger can be easily plugged in to the cigarette lighter of your automobile. You can put it in your car permanently and then charge your devices on the go.

  • Works with most of the devices:

The idea is simple enough. Take the charge from the cigarette lighter and give it to your devices. Most of the devices charge well on a dual USB car charger. Whether you have a Smartphone or a media player, most of the devices that have a USB charging facility can be charged through a dual USB car charger.

  • Charge multiple devices with the same charger:

A dual USB car charger has two USB ports. This means that you can charge up to two devices simultaneously. So now you can charge your mobile phone and your mp3 player at the same time while you are driving.

  • Precautions while buying:

Some smart phones such as I phones and some other high end mobile phones have specific charging needs. You must always buy a certified car charged. It’s good if the charger has been certified by a competent authority like FMI. When you buy a certified charger you make sure that your charger will work in future too when your phone is updated. Another point to note is the volt factor. The original charger that came with your smart phone or mp3 player will have a sticker on it that will detail the voltage requirements of your device’s battery. Make sure that you are buying a charger within the same voltage range as printed on the device’s adapter. Any charger with a higher voltage range can potentially damage your device and it may even violate some terms of warranty. For these reasons it’s in your best interest to spend a few extra seconds and buy the right dual USB car charger.

At Vority, we pride ourselves in making first-rate products. How do we do that? Simple, we keep your needs on top of our list. We also have a team of passionate, creative and driven people to ensure we meet your ever-changing demands. The bottom line is – we make products to keep your life simple.

Like you, our customers, we value top-rated products that give you bang for your buck. So rest assured that we do everything we can to make the best cell phone accessories at competitive prices. In need of some proof of customer satisfaction? Check out our products on Amazon.com. Our customers have consistently provided excellent ratings for Vority cellphones chargers.

Why is recovery important for drug addicts?

Recovery from drug addiction involves certain steps that help an individual to recover from the drug addicted state. The recovery guidelines help the individuals struggling with drug addiction to get the proper and a quick cure from it. Other than that, the individual must also have self control over his or her addiction. Trust and patience is required in the long term recovery from drug addiction. Nowadays there is facility of choosing from the wide range of services provided for the recovery. Starting from the process of evaluation to various residential treatments, one may choose the service according to his or her convenience. The addiction of drugs is dangerous and may result to death of the addicted individuals.  Few people get to understand when they cross the limit of casual drug intakes and become addicted to it. Severe addiction is quite tough to be treated but also not impossible and this is the point when outpatient alcohol rehab should be contacted. If the person gets the proper treatment and under the proper doctor then the whole program of recovery from drug addiction becomes far easier. Continue reading Why is recovery important for drug addicts?

Budget Camping Tips

Camping is one of those leisure activities that not only requires time, but equipment and tools as well. While it may seem like your wallet is getting a break from choosing to camp over getting a hotel somewhere, it can still rack up quite a few expenses. However, there are ways to bypass many of those costs and keep the experience on the cheaper side.

1. Sometimes just getting into the wild can make you feel like you are miles away from home. Nearly every state in the country has some kind of national park or recreation area, so choosing to go camping in an area nearby would save a lot on travel costs. As long as there are no skyscrapers or highways, you will surely be able to feel like you are much further away than you actually are.

2. Another way to save some money for camping trips is to buy used equipment. Many second hand stores sell things like lamps, pots and pans that you can take with you on your trip and not worry too much about wearing them out or scratching them up. If that idea doesn’t appeal to you, the other option is to buy items that you know you can use again for more than just one camping trip. It would be helpful to create a designated storage area to keep you equipment and have it last you for the whole season, or even several seasons.

3. Buying multipurpose items in bulk is a great way to not only trim down your inventory, but your expenses as well. For example, a single pot can be used to make all your meals and boil water, as long as you are able to clean it out in between. Also, buying a family size pack of ground beef can be used to make a variety of different meals. Taking as few things as possible and minimizing your items can also make it easy to pack up when you are ready to go home.

4. Several national parks have a few days a year in which entry and camping registration is free. This is usually over the holidays, which can make your trip a festive one especially if it is over a long weekend such as Labor Day. There may be some other areas with their own special deals, so it might be a good idea to research the places you are thinking about spending a night or two. However, take into account that over holidays and free pass days it is normally much more crowded, so staking your spot early would probably be a good idea.

5. Solar equipment is growing in popularity these days and for good reason, too. If you manage to find some solar lamps, flashlights or lights to bring with you on your camping trip, think about how much money you would save on batteries. Select large retail stores are known to sell some of the smaller lights to put in the ground for just a few bucks, and that might be a great way to bring some illumination to your campsite.

6. Sometimes even just looking around your home may help when packing for a camping trip. Some of your regular household items can be disguised as one thing, but completely compatible for another use. For example, an old shower curtain might make a great tarp for under your tent, and bringing all that extra lint in your dryer may serve as great tinder for your fire. Not only would this reduce your list of things that you need to buy, but you may get an extra use out of something you might usually throw away anyway.

Regular Car Maintenance

We understand cars are expensive, and we aren’t just talking about the upfront costs that come with purchasing a vehicle. Regular car maintenance is definitely necessary, but it is not cheap. To maintain the value of your car and to avoid further depreciation it is important to service your vehicle regularly. Keep track of the services you have done to your car so you know when to have it serviced next. Not only going in when you think your car should be service, but also having your car checked every year by a professional is important. Continue reading Regular Car Maintenance

Posted by / April 16, 2017 / Posted in Auto